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ERIC Number: ED458997
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2001-Nov-2
Pages: 23
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
The Egalitarian Marriages of Six Froebelian Leaders in Late Nineteenth Century America.
Hewes, Dorothy W.
During the final years of the nineteenth century, among the leaders of the American Froebelian kindergarten movement were three dual-career couples who exemplified the concept of egalitarian marriage: John Kraus and Maria Kraus-Boelte, William and Eudora Hailmann, and Ada Morean Hughes and John Hughes. This paper focuses on the way these six pioneers were taught, on their own early childhood experiences, the women who influenced them, and the complex social milieu of the late nineteenth century that enabled them to approach the marital relationship in a style countering many of the established sex-related roles of the period. There was no indication that these couples consciously tried to be models of egalitarian marriages. These couples worked to promote American kindergartens and to train young women to teach in them. They attempted to reform all American education systems to incorporate student self-government, a sequenced curriculum of active learning experiences, and the support of businesses and community structures. Froebel's method, which they sometimes called "The New Education," depended upon adults who were facilitators rather than authoritarians, able to promote children's advancement socially, physically, and aesthetically in a supportive environment. They applied this Froebelian philosophy to their husband-wife relationships. (Contains 30 footnotes.) (KB)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A