ERIC Number: ED458851
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 2001
From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers.
Long, J. Scott, Ed.
This study documents the changes that have occurred in the representation of women in science and engineering and the characteristics of women scientists and engineers. Data from two National Science Foundation databases, the Survey of Earned Doctorates for New Ph.D.s and the Survey of Doctoral Recipients for the science & engineering doctoral workforce, bring together information about the educational background and demographic characteristics of 3 decades of new Ph.D.s and then examines their careers. From 1970 to 1995, there were significant advances in the entry of women into science and engineering. In the 5 broad fields considered, there were 350% more women among new Ph.D.s in 1995 than in 1973. However, women are not close to being equally represented in all science and engineering fields. In 1995, women represented 50% of Ph.D.s in the biological sciences, but only 12% of Ph.D.s in engineering. Differences remain in the ways men and women finance their education. The share of women in the science and engineering labor force has grown, but differences remain in the distribution of male and female scientists and engineers. Information is also provided about academic careers for male and female scientists and engineers. Overall, male doctoral scientists and engineers had about a 20% salary advantage over women, and this difference persisted between 1973 and 1995. Appendix A lists the Carnegie classifications of institutions of higher education, and Appendix B contains data tables. (Contains 116 figures, 30 tables, and 185 references.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Careers, Doctoral Degrees, Employment Patterns, Engineering, Engineers, Females, Higher Education, National Surveys, Sciences, Scientists, Sex Differences
National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055. Tel: 800-624-6242 (Toll Free); Tel: 202-334-3313; Web site: http://www.nap.edu.
Publication Type: Books; Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, New York, NY.; National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.
Authoring Institution: National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Note: Produced by the Panel for the Study of Gender Differences in the Career Outcomes of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s and the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering.