ERIC Number: ED458060
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2000
Reference Count: N/A
Operation Blackboard: Policy Implementation in Indian Elementary Education. Monographs in International Education.
Ever since it was first written into the new nation's Constitution in 1950, achieving universal elementary education has proven an elusive goal for India. This book examines the failure of the Operation Blackboard scheme to establish a minimum norm of essential facilities for primary schools but argues that, in spite of its failure, the scheme has been rich in important policy lessons. The book considers two in particular. First, the prevailing view of implementation, highly centralized and top-down, was deeply flawed. Central directives met with active opposition or passive resistance when key stakeholders at other levels were not drawn into policy dialogues. Second, teachers are central to meaningful educational change and must understand the hows and whys of changes if they are to implement them. Historically, all policy documents have reiterated the importance of teachers to meaningful educational change. The first four chapters show in various ways that this has not been addressed in practice or in theory. Many examples focus on rural village schools. Chapter 5 describes a primary teacher culture with low motivation and lack of accountability towards children; supporting improvements to this culture remains a key challenge for educational managers at all levels. Although there are now new structures that did not exist when Operation Blackboard was launched, professional cultures are well established and hard to change. Appendices present mapping routes of the case study and minimum essential classroom equipment provided under Operation Blackboard. (Contains 144 references.) (TD)
Descriptors: Case Studies, Educational Change, Educational Facilities Improvement, Educational Needs, Educational Policy, Elementary Education, Elementary Schools, Foreign Countries, Government School Relationship, Policy Analysis, Program Effectiveness, Public Education, Rural Schools, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Role
Symposium Books, P.O. Box 65, Wallingford, Oxford OX10 0YG, United Kingdom ($38). E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Publication Type: Books; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: India