ERIC Number: ED457560
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2001
Reference Count: N/A
Alternatives to Retention and Social Promotion. Fastback 481.
Owings, William A.; Kaplan, Leslie S.
Retention and social promotion are expensive failures. History and research show that retention and social promotion are ineffective in improving student learning and achievement. The alternative to these failed strategies is to personalize the learning environment. Research indicates six promising strategies for personalization, thereby reducing the need for retention and social promotion: creating a positive school environment, providing early intervention to prevent school failure, fostering continuity of teacher-learner relationships, providing meaningful curriculum and instruction, providing extra help and extra time, and creating effective home-school discussion. Personalization occurs when a school is committed to high achievement from at-risk learners; when opportunities are presented for early prevention of school failure; when at-risk students and teachers know, trust, and respect each other; when at-risk students find curricula meaningful and relevant; when instructional practices increase at-risk students' personal investment in learning; when extra time and extra help are provided to support learning; and when there is strong parental involvement in students' academic progress. Meaningful instruction taught by competent teachers in caring school environments helps at-risk students become competent learners, thus preventing the need for retention and social promotion. (Contains 95 references.) (RT)
Descriptors: Academic Failure, At Risk Persons, Elementary Secondary Education, Grade Repetition, Individualized Instruction, Low Achievement, Social Promotion, Student Promotion, Underachievement
Phi Delta Kappa International, P.O. Box 789, Bloomington, IN 47402-0789. Tel: 800-766-1156 (Toll Free); Tel: 812-339-1156; Web site: http://www.pdkintl.org.
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, Bloomington, IN.