ERIC Number: ED455999
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2001
Reference Count: N/A
Peruvian Education at a Crossroads: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. A World Bank Country Study.
Wu, Kin Bing
Peruvian education achieved notable successes in the late 20th century, with primary education reaching almost all children and secondary institutions enrolling about 80 percent of 12- to 16-year-olds. Public expenditure on education increased steadily in the 1990s but was still significantly less than the Latin American average. This report examines Peruvian data from 1990 to 1997 on enrollments; expenditures; system performance indicators (access, grade repetition, completion rates, labor market outcomes, learning outcomes); teacher qualifications and salaries; and teaching conditions. It concludes that Peru's high participation rates with low expenditures were made possible by relatively equitable public expenditures focused on basic education; the ability to contain salary costs; and households' high level of educational spending. However, expanding access under extreme resource constraints has come at the expense of quality. There are large gaps in school survival rates between rich and poor, between rural and urban, and between indigenous and nonindigenous populations; large between-school variance in student achievement; and rising returns to higher levels of education. These findings indicate that policy changes could make a difference, particularly to disadvantaged students. Recommendations include improving equity by targeting disadvantaged groups, particularly rural and indigenous children; enhancing quality of schools, teachers, and instruction; and improving efficiency of resource use. Background notes describe the structure of education, methodology and statistical analyses, and the system of teacher education and professional development. Appendices present extensive data tables. (Contains 117 references.) (SV)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Educational Needs, Educational Quality, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment, Equal Education, Expenditures, Foreign Countries, Indigenous Populations, Outcomes of Education, Rural Urban Differences, Tables (Data), Teacher Education, Teachers, Teaching Conditions
World Bank, P.O. Box 960, Herndon, VA 20172-0960; Tel: 800-645-7247 (Toll-Free) ($45 plus $8 shipping).
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: Peru