ERIC Number: ED453989
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Changes in Girls' Lives: Malawi from 1990 to 1997.
Wolf, Joyce; Kainja, Katherine
Increased awareness of the importance of girls' education within Malawi and internationally resulted in the implementation of many changes in girls' education during the 1990s. By 1997, the number of girls enrolled in primary school was twice the level in 1990, and girls' share of enrollment increased from 45 to 48 percent. Malawi improved girls' enrollment by using a broad combination of strategies. Tuition fees for girls were waived. The number of school facilities was increased, most notably in rural areas, and all new schools were equipped with latrines, the absence of which had discouraged girls' attendance. School uniform requirements were dropped, lowering family expenses. New secondary schools were increasingly "day" schools, as opposed to traditional boarding secondary schools. Many new female teachers were encouraged to enter the school system. A scholarship program for girls was instituted to boost secondary level enrollment. The policy of permanently expelling girls who became pregnant was revised to allow girls to return to school a year after birth. The timing of female initiation ceremonies was adjusted to take place during summer vacation instead of during the school year. The primary school curriculum was revised, with careful attention paid to gender images, and a training program has sensitized teachers to gender biases and provided classroom techniques for overcoming them. (Contains 36 references.) (TD)
Descriptors: Academic Persistence, Access to Education, Change Strategies, Curriculum Development, Educational Attitudes, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment, Equal Education, Foreign Countries, Rural Schools, Sex Bias, Social Attitudes, Teacher Education, Womens Education
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.; Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).
Identifiers - Location: Malawi