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ERIC Number: ED453988
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Sep
Pages: 40
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Education Reforms in Balochistan, 1990-1998: A Case Study in Improving Management and Gender Equity in Primary Education.
Anzar, Uzma
Between 1990 and 1998, Balochistan, a poor, rural, and underdeveloped province in Pakistan, undertook a major restructuring of its public education system aimed at increasing girls' access to schooling. Strategies included establishing more girls' schools, appointing local female teachers, providing special inservice training for female teachers, and increasing the number of female administrators at both the senior policy and local management levels. By 1998 there was a 159 percent increase in girls' enrollment in primary classes and a 241 percent increase in girls' primary schools. An important element in the success of this effort was the productive partnership between Balochistan's education department, nongovernmental organizations, and international donors. Strong political will was required to improve primary education, especially for girls. Political leaders used the conditionalities of international donors as leverage to push through difficult reforms. In addition, involvement of parents at every stage of local initiatives strengthened government and community partnerships. This report begins with a brief review of education conditions prior to 1990 and in the early years of the reform program, then looks at three major reform objectives: restructuring management, improving educational quality, and involving communities in expanding primary education for girls. In each area, challenges to achieving the objective and reform strategies to overcome these challenges are examined. The study concludes with a discussion of current reform initiatives in Balochistan, factors behind the successes to date, and the outlook for the future. (Author/TD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.; Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).
Identifiers - Location: Pakistan