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ERIC Number: ED453509
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Dec
Pages: 5
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Effective Literacy Programs. Classroom Connections.
Pinnell, Gay Su
Council Connections, p9-11 Win 1999
Effective literacy programs involve a wide range of reading and writing activities, all of which are necessary and which support learning in different ways. An essential part of the language arts curriculum involves direct instruction in reading. Many teachers are beginning to teach reading in small groups, a process called "guided reading." Successful implementation for guided reading depends on selecting appropriate texts every day. Having a leveled book collection does not take the place of text selection, but it does make it easier. A leveled collection may be constructed simply by gathering a large collection of books and working with colleagues to discuss the characteristics of the texts. By using their experiences in teaching children, teachers will find that they can place books along a continuum of difficulty. The book list presented in "Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children" (Fountas and Pinnell, 1996) was based on several years of teachers' work with a set of books leveled for classroom use. Another way to start a leveled collection is to begin with any set of books from a publisher reliable in the gradient of difficulty presented. Factors to be considered in placing a text along a gradient of difficulty are: length; layout; subject; structure and organization of the text; illustrations; words; phrases, sentences, paragraphs; punctuation; and literary features. The first levels introduce children to reading print--as the levels increase in difficulty, there is a wider variety of text. Factors outside a text include the reader's prior knowledge of the topic and prior experience in encountering texts with features like this one; the way the text is introduced; and the supportive interactions between the teacher and children during reading. (NKA)
Reading Recovery Council of North America, Inc., 1929 Kenny Road, Suite 100, Columbus, OH 43210-1069. Tel: 614-292-7111; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.