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ERIC Number: ED448633
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2000-Dec
Pages: 54
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Gender Equity: Men's and Women's Participation in Higher Education. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives.
Shaul, Marnie S.
This report reviews what is known about the contribution of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to changes in higher education, focusing on the extent to which women's participation in higher education academic programs has changed since Title IX was enacted, participation in intercollegiate athletics in that period, and how federal enforcement of Title IX had led to change in higher education. Information from the U.S. Department of Education, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics were reviewed. Findings show that since the enactment of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in higher education academic programs has increased significantly, whether measured by the proportion of students who are women, the numbers enrolled, or the proportion of women receiving degrees in fields of study in which men were predominant degree recipients. Women's participation in college athletics has increased while men's has decreased slightly, although men still participate to a greater extent than women. Because factors such as other civil rights laws and changing societal attitudes have also contributed to changes in women's roles, it is difficult to isolate the specific effects of Title IX. There is widespread agreement that its enactment has contributed to increased opportunities for women in the classroom and on the playing field. Six appendixes contain supplemental information on the review's scope and methodology, agencies with responsibility for enforcing Title IX, and supplemental information about participation in academics and athletics. (SLD)
U.S. General Accounting Office, P.O. Box 37050, Washington, DC 20013 (first copy free; additional copies, $2). Tel: 202-512-6000; Fax: 202-512-6061; Web site:
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Education Amendments 1972; Title IX Education Amendments 1972