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ERIC Number: ED445400
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2000-Apr-24
Pages: 53
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Superintendents, Boards, Governance and Race: A Century and a Half in the District of Columbia.
Anderson, Sandra Lee
This report presents a history of school superintendents in the District of Columbia from 1865 to spring 2000. Research revealed major issues of race, control by Congress, and changes of governance each half-century: 1865, 1900, 1954, and 2000. The analysis is based on the annual reports and minutes of the board for the 2 centuries, histories of the school system, and newspaper articles. Until 1967, black superintendents and board members led the black systems or divisions, and whites guided the white and mixed systems, resulting in the development of black school leaders and teachers, and a black school system touted nationally until recent decades. Personal characteristics of superintendents revealed that congenial, deferential superintendents enjoyed longer tenure than charismatic change-agents. Although similar to other school systems on many issues, D.C. is unique in that it is controlled by the U.S. Congress. In one recurring pattern the school board would demand data-heavy reports to justify replacing the superintendent, just before Congress would mandate new governance. Another pattern was the consistent underfunding of school facilities by Congress and the City Council, until conditions required Congressional appropriations. In the year 2000, Congress again intervened and the structure of the board was placed on a referendum. (RJM)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A