ERIC Number: ED444792
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998
On Living Well in Our Place: Earlier Rural Reform Movements.
Canniff, Julie G.
The Country Life Movement in the United States (1900-1920) emerged in response to the migration of rural people to the cities and the rising obsession with scientific knowledge. Modernizing rural areas and their institutions was seen as necessary to sustain rural communities at the economic and social levels of urban centers. Liberty Hyde Bailey, Horace Plunkett, and Theodore Roosevelt contributed ideas to the Country Life Movement. Three main themes of the movement were community sustainability, redirected community institutions, and participatory democracy. To this end, farmers were organized into cooperatives. Reforming rural education was central to the movement. The Cooperative Extension Service was born, and consolidated schools that served rural needs were advocated to connect farm families to their local villages. The Antigonish Movement in Canada (1920-1950) sought to build up the spiritual and material wealth of society by meeting the needs and concerns of local communities. The tool for this was extension education; experts were removed from universities and placed side by side with leaders in small, poor communities. The Annenberg Rural Challenge intends to become a millennial educational reform movement by recommitting to these earlier movements' principles of economic sustainability; pedagogy that uses the community as laboratory and text; involvement of parents, congregations, community leaders, and local businesses in the day-to-day activities of the school; and development of leadership through direct action on behalf of the community. (TD)
Publication Type: Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A