ERIC Number: ED443652
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2000-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of the Determinants of Adult Literacy and Earnings in Ghana. Policy Research Working Papers.
Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte
This paper analyzes the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. Introductory sections discuss developments in literacy in the United States and Great Britain, literacy rates in developing countries, worldwide increases in literacy, literature on the determinants of literacy, aspects of the Ghanaian economy and educational spending, and the human capital framework for analyzing the relationship between education as investment and income as return on investment. Analysis of two household surveys in Ghana found that literacy and age were negatively correlated, suggesting that efforts in recent years to expand and improve basic education programs have been successful in raising adult literacy rates. Females were less literate than males, controlling for other factors. Literacy was positively associated with parents' education and negatively related to distance to the nearest primary school, residence in a rural area, and poverty. Income was related to age and male gender, but not to education. Functional literacy appears to be a prerequisite for entering the labor market, which may partly explain the lack of return to education other than middle school and technical/professional training. Basic education and literacy programs should target females and poorer households, especially in rural areas. (Contains 22 references.) (SV)
Descriptors: Adult Literacy, Age Differences, Education Work Relationship, Educational Attainment, Foreign Countries, Functional Literacy, Human Capital, Income, Poverty, Rural Urban Differences, Sex Differences
World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433; Tel: 202-473-7871. For full text: http://econ.worldbank.org/docs/1165.pdf.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: Ghana