ERIC Number: ED441994
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Development of Standards in Vocational Education and Training, July 1998 (Reprinted with Updates 1999). Manual. Volume 1. Qualifications and Training Methods.
Kunzmann, Margret; Laur-Ernst, Ute
This manual was developed as an integral part of an ongoing project on the role of standards in vocational training that was launched by the European Training Foundation in 1995. Revised in November, 1999, this manual reports the results of three meetings that addressed the following subjects: the content of vocational education and training standards; the procedures for their development; and the processes of implementation and evaluation, supplemented by knowledge in comparative research and current trends. The manual, which does not prescribe specific models but offers options and alternatives for the development of vocational education and training standards, is organized in eight sections. Following the introductory section that explains the basis and goal of the manual, section 2 defines standards, a main element in the transformation process of vocational education and training, providing definition, components, and functions. The third section provides aids for the forward shaping of occupational standards, while the fourth section suggests four alternative models for the shaping of standards in vocational education (examination model, occupation model, modular model, and combination occupation model and modular model), and evaluates them. Section 5 suggests the types of experts who should be involved in standard development (team creation), and section 6 sets forth a procedure for the elaboration of occupational standards. Section 7 contains information on implementation, evaluation, and compliance with standards. The final section provides four examples of standard development in vocational training in the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Latvia, and Ukraine. (KC)
Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Developing Nations, Foreign Countries, Models, Postsecondary Education, Secondary Education, Standards, Vocational Education
For full text: http://www.etf.eu.int/etfweb.nsf/pages/vetdown/$file/dev-sta .pdf.
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).
Authoring Institution: German Federal Inst. for Vocational Training Affairs, Berlin (Germany).
Identifiers - Location: Czech Republic; Latvia; Slovenia; Ukraine