ERIC Number: ED440775
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Sep
Reference Count: N/A
Boys to Men: Sports Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Sports Programs and Commercials.
Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti
Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a national poll of 1,200 children ages 10-17 and 2 focus groups of boys. Part 1 of the report, "Analyzing Sports Programming," discusses aggression, violence, and injuries as well as sports, race, and gender. Key findings include: (1) aggression and violence among men is depicted as exciting and rewarding behavior; (2) athletes who play with pain are often portrayed as heroes; (3) games are often promoted by creating or inflating conflict between two star athletes; (4) white males dominate the world of sports commentary; (5) while there were few overtly racist images or comments, sports programs occasionally reinforce racial stereotypes; and (6) women are largely absent from the sports programs that boys watch, and when they do appear, they are portrayed in stereotypical ways. Part 2 of the report, "Analyzing Commercials in Sports Programming," discusses products and commercial sponsorships and tie-ins. Key findings include: (1) the primary products advertised are automobiles, shows on the same network, and snacks or fast food; (2) while male athletes of color play prominent roles in sports programming, people of color in general are underrepresented in the commercials; (3) women often appear in stereotypical or background roles in commercials; and (4) traditionally masculine images of speed, danger, and aggression are often used in the sports programming commercials. (LPP)
Descriptors: Adolescent Attitudes, Adolescents, Advertising, Athletics, Audience Response, Blacks, Childhood Attitudes, Children, Content Analysis, Females, Focus Groups, Males, Masculinity, Mass Media Effects, Mass Media Role, Media Research, Programming (Broadcast), Sex Role, Stereotypes, Television Commercials, Television Research, Television Viewing, Whites
For full text: http:// www.childrennow.org/media/boystomen/report-sports.html.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, CA.; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA.
Authoring Institution: Children Now, Oakland, CA.