NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED440775
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Sep
Pages: 17
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Boys to Men: Sports Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Sports Programs and Commercials.
Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti
Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a national poll of 1,200 children ages 10-17 and 2 focus groups of boys. Part 1 of the report, "Analyzing Sports Programming," discusses aggression, violence, and injuries as well as sports, race, and gender. Key findings include: (1) aggression and violence among men is depicted as exciting and rewarding behavior; (2) athletes who play with pain are often portrayed as heroes; (3) games are often promoted by creating or inflating conflict between two star athletes; (4) white males dominate the world of sports commentary; (5) while there were few overtly racist images or comments, sports programs occasionally reinforce racial stereotypes; and (6) women are largely absent from the sports programs that boys watch, and when they do appear, they are portrayed in stereotypical ways. Part 2 of the report, "Analyzing Commercials in Sports Programming," discusses products and commercial sponsorships and tie-ins. Key findings include: (1) the primary products advertised are automobiles, shows on the same network, and snacks or fast food; (2) while male athletes of color play prominent roles in sports programming, people of color in general are underrepresented in the commercials; (3) women often appear in stereotypical or background roles in commercials; and (4) traditionally masculine images of speed, danger, and aggression are often used in the sports programming commercials. (LPP)
For full text: http://
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, CA.; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA.
Authoring Institution: Children Now, Oakland, CA.