ERIC Number: ED439464
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1997
Programmed Instruction and Interactive Multimedia: A Third Consideration.
Cruthirds, Jason; Hanna, Michael S.
Rapid development of computer-based instructional methods, combined with the rapid evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, have made it technologically possible to develop fully interactive self-study materials consistent with the dreams of scholars and teachers who developed programmed instruction methods in the 1960s and early 1970s. The lessons learned from early research may be applied, but the new technology has generated new questions. One of the most perplexing of these questions centers on the locus of control. Theories of learning and instruction have provided some help, but the rapid development of the Internet and the World Wide Web have presented new problems. Three findings from a massive research literature stand out (M. S. Hanna, 1971): (1) programmed instruction worked as well as other forms of instruction; (2) programmed instruction was dramatically more efficient than traditional forms of instruction; and (3) people liked programmed instruction methods at least as well as other forms of instruction. In retrospect from the vantage of 1997, the initiatives of programmed instruction scholars were farsighted. Now, CD-ROM hardware and software technology has brought about an environment in which fully interactive multimedia allows scholars to pick up the thread that ties their work to programmed instruction. Programmed Instruction was not behind its time--it was 15 or 20 years ahead of its time. The unanswered questions from the late 1960s and early 1970s about programmed instruction methods and technology are germane to the current interest in interactive multimedia as a teaching method. A research program is needed, and that can only be accomplished by teachers willing to use--and test--interactive multimedia in their work. If such a research is to be mounted, it must build on what is already known. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/RS)
Descriptors: Educational Technology, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Individualized Instruction, Internet, Multimedia Instruction, Multimedia Materials, Programmed Instruction, Programmed Instructional Materials
For full text: http://www.natcom.org/ctronline2/96-97pro.htm.
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Communication Association, Annandale, VA.