ERIC Number: ED439332
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1997-May
History and Development of Career Counseling in the USA.
This paper chronicles the stages in the history of career counseling and development in the United States, noting that each stage has been presaged by major societal changes and has had profound effects on the lives of individuals. In the first stage (1890-1919), placement effects on services were offered for an increasingly urban and industrial society. In the second stage (1920-1939), educational guidance through the elementary and secondary schools became the focal point. The third stage (1940-1959) saw a shift to colleges and universities and the training of counselors. The fourth stage (1960-1979) was a boom for counseling and the idea of work having meaning in a person's life came to the forefront. The fifth stage (1980-1989) saw the beginning of the transition from an industrial age to an information age and the growth of outplacement counseling. The sixth stage (1990-present), with its emphasis on technology and changing demographics, has seen the growth of private career counseling, internationalization of career counseling, and the beginning of multicultural career counseling. In the paper's analysis, historic epochs were found to have affected the development of career counseling in other cultures. (Contains 22 references.) (JDM)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: In: Caring in an Age of Technology. Proceedings of the International Conference on Counseling in the 21st Century (6th, Beijing, China, May 29-30, 1997); see CG 029 879.