ERIC Number: ED439167
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1999-May
Where Are They Now? What States' Studies of People Who Left Welfare Tell Us. Assessing the New Federalism. An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies. Series A, No. A-32.
Brauner, Sarah; Loprest, Pamela
This review attempts to consider all publicly available studies that examine employment outcomes for people who have left welfare. Only studies that describe their methodology clearly and report survey response rates of 50% or higher are included, for a total of 11 studies reviewed. These studies cover various geographic areas, labor market conditions, and welfare reform policies. Some general patterns emerge. The majority of welfare leavers are working. Shortly after leaving welfare for any reason, including sanction, half to two-thirds of welfare leavers were employed after a specific period of time. Those who remain off welfare tend to have higher employment rates than those who return to welfare, and those who left as a result of sanction have lower employment rates. Leavers usually have low-wage jobs, however, so their earnings remain low, despite high employment rates and number of hours worked. The average welfare leaver's earnings are below the poverty level, and most leavers report incomes that are lower than or similar to their combined earnings and benefits before leaving welfare. One-half to two-thirds of welfare leavers continue to receive Medicaid, while about half receive food stamps. Most families believe they are better off leaving welfare, but about a third report problems providing food, paying utility bills, and paying rent. A few studies found significant reliance on friends and family as a means of additional support. (Contains 10 end notes and 9 tables.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Adults, Employment Patterns, Job Training, Labor Market, Low Income Groups, Poverty, Public Policy, Urban Areas, Welfare Recipients, Welfare Reform
Urban Institute, 2100 M St., N.W., Washington, DC 20037. Tel: 202-833-7000; Fax: 202-429-0687; Web site: http://www.urban.org. For full text: http://newfederalism.urban.org/html/ant 32.html.
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, MI.; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ.; Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA.; Ford Foundation, New York, NY.; John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, IL.; Mott (C.S.) Foundation, Flint, MI.; David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA.; Weingart Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.; Fund for New Jersey, East Orange.; Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, Milwaukee, WI.; Joyce Foundation, Chicago, IL.; Rockefeller Bros. Fund, New York, NY.; McKnight Foundation, Minneapolis, MN.; Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.
Authoring Institution: Urban Inst., Washington, DC.
Note: Additional support provided by the Stuart Foundation.