ERIC Number: ED438979
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
An Integrative Review of the Literature on Women in the Outdoors.
Henderson, Karla A.; Roberts, Nina S.
This paper reviews the research on women in the outdoors, 1978-97. Among the major findings are the following: women were underrepresented and underpaid in executive and management positions related to outdoor programs; women tended to lead outdoor groups differently than men; outdoor recreation patterns differed in that women were more likely to seek out aesthetic experiences whereas males enjoyed the glory of exploring the unknown; little research has addressed diversity and women in the outdoors; all-female groups have demonstrated value related to the absence of traditional gender expectations; lack of confidence limited women's success more than did physical limitations; outdoor activities boosted self-esteem; the major constraints to finding meaning in the outdoors for women related to social dimensions; and outdoor activities had therapeutic benefits for women. The findings indicate that much of the research on girls and women is not framed as feminist or gender-based; research focused on gender differences has revealed little about the outdoor experience for females; research on women in the outdoors has contributed to a broader understanding of the epistemology and methodology used by researchers; studying girls and women may pave the way for addressing gendered meanings and other issues of diversity in the outdoors; research must emphasize critical analyses in addition to personal experience; and empowerment is emerging as an important theme that could benefit all outdoor educators. (Contains 58 references.) (TD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A