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ERIC Number: ED438518
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1999-Dec
Reference Count: N/A
Improving Academic Achievement in Reading and Writing in Primary Grades.
Hubbard, Trina; Newell, Michelle
This study describes a program designed to increase academic achievement in reading and writing among first and second grade students in a rural, middle-income area. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes reading comprehension tests, observation checklists for reading skills and reading behaviors, and writing samples. Analysis of probable cause data suggests inadequate achievement in reading and writing can be broken down into three categories: educational issues, family issues, and mass media use. A review of the solution strategies suggested by the professional literature, combined with an analysis of the settings of the problem, resulted in the selection of a three-pronged problem-solving approach incorporating lessons built on cooperative learning and multiple intelligences combined with cross-age tutoring to increase academic achievement in reading and writing. Based on the presentation and analysis of the data on improving achievement in reading and writing, the students showed a marked improvement in these areas. Cooperative learning aided the students in being successful through peer interaction. Since students learn in a variety of ways, the multiple intelligences lessons catered to the students' ways of learning. Cross-age tutoring played a key role in improving the students' reading and writing skills. The second grade students took on the teacher role when assisting the first graders in various lessons. Self-esteem improved in both grade levels and they looked forward to working together. As a result of cooperative learning, multiple intelligences, and cross-age tutoring, the students' academic achievement in reading and writing improved in all areas. Contains 23 references, and a table and 12 figures of data. Appendixes contain writing samples, checklists, evaluation measures, and lesson plans. (Author/RS)
Descriptors: Action Research, Cooperative Learning, Cross Age Teaching, Grade 1, Grade 2, Instructional Effectiveness, Multiple Intelligences, Primary Education, Reading Achievement, Reading Improvement, Reading Instruction, Rural Education, Tutoring, Writing Achievement, Writing Improvement, Writing Instruction
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Master's Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University and IRI/Skylight.