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ERIC Number: ED436270
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Apr
Pages: 23
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Helping, Friendship, and Children's Balance of Give and Take.
Zornemann, Petra; Krappmann, Lothar; Grabow, Birgit; Oswald, Hans
Theories of development in childhood maintain that equality plays an important role in peer interactions during middle childhood. One particular situation that can provoke problems is the request for help. Helping is not an easy situation because an individual's need for something creates an imbalance which children try to avoid. This study investigated whether help was more frequently given or offered in a sensitive and respectful way when children either were friends or demonstrated a balanced relationship between the extent of both partners' mutual help. Videotapes of sixth-graders' spontaneous interactions in the classroom were analyzed. One hundred and thirty-four helping acts were identified and rated according to the type and quality of helping. Children were also interviewed about their relationships with their classmates. Findings indicated that reciprocal friends demonstrated a more balanced account of mutual helping and manifested adverse behaviors less often than non-friend dyads. Adverse behaviors among friends appeared to be related to rivalry or competition and not to imbalanced helping accounts. Findings raised the issue of the ways in which children's behaviors reveal a rational reaction to the situation and where they appear to be influenced by equilibrium or disequilibrium of the partners' input into mutual assistance. (SD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A