ERIC Number: ED435127
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1999
Improving Student Achievement by Extending School: Is It Just a Matter of Time?
Aronson, Julie; Zimmerman, Joy; Carlos, Lisa
This document explores ways in which time can be used as an education resource. It opens with an overview of studies that indicate that American students trail their counterparts in other leading industrialized nations in academic achievement. It discusses research on the relationship between time and learning, explores the limitations of existing research, and defines the terms used in research, such as allocated time, engaged time, and academic-learning time. It offers the basic findings of these studies, including the conclusion that there is little or no relationship between allocated time and student achievement, that there is some relationship between engaged time and achievement, and that there is a larger relationship between academic-learning time and achievement. The text encourages educators to focus on the time that matters; research indicates that there is no consistent relationship between the amount of time allocated for instruction and the amount of time students spend engaged in learning activities. The document examines the costs of adding time and some of the key factors in maximizing existing time, including classroom management, the appropriateness of instruction and curriculum, and student motivation. The booklet concludes that time, albeit a critical factor, exhibits little impact on student performance when considered alone. (Contains 31 references.) (RJM)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: WestEd, San Francisco, CA.
Note: "This paper was originally presented for the PACE Media/Education Writers Seminar (April 20, 1998)."