NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED435061
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Aug
Pages: 47
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Twenty Years of Hardiness Research and Practice.
Maddi, Salvatore R.
This paper explains how the hardiness approach has had an impact on psychology and related fields. It states that in this process, the development of the hardiness approach to enhancing performance and health has been facilitated by continual cross-fertilization between theorizing, research, and practice. It first emerged from individual differences research on stress reactions as the attitudes of commitment, control, and challenge. Since then, the impetus of combing research and practice has led to the supplementation of hardy attitudes with hardy skills concerning coping, social interaction, relaxation, nutrition, and physical exercise. Also, the role of and mechanisms whereby hardy attitudes and skills enhance performance and health are better understood. This more comprehensive picture also involves the expansion of the hardiness approach from the individual to the organization level. As we approach the next century, hardiness will be even more useful. (Contains 4 figures and 40 references.) (JDM)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A