ERIC Number: ED433168
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-May
Reference Count: N/A
Poverty and Social Developments in Peru, 1994-1997. A World Bank Country Study.
World Bank, Washington, DC.
From 1994 to 1997, social welfare improved in Peru. Areas of improvement included decreased poverty and severe poverty rates, increased school attendance and literacy, and a healthier population. Most important among health improvements was reduced malnutrition among young children. Social improvements stemmed from the favorable overall economic environment, with per capita real growth rates at about 3.5 percent and the creation of about 1.3 million new jobs. On the negative side, regional disparities grew, with some regions showing huge improvement, particularly Lima, and others falling behind, particularly the rural highlands. Of the large achievements in education, health, and infrastructure, about 70 percent were in cities. Although gender differences narrowed and vulnerable groups such as migrants and the landless shared the benefits of development, the indigenous population fell further behind and was highly at risk of deprivation. The social situation of children also remained bleak. Improved household welfare was related to participation in the informal sector, smaller household size, greater education, and access to basic services. Peru's growth path was pro-poor because sectors with poorer workers grew fastest. However, agricultural growth was not strong. Simulations show that growth remains important for poverty reduction in Peru, but type of growth and its regional distribution are also important. Policy changes could achieve a much bigger impact with available resources. Appendices describe a household panel study and research methodology. (Contains 50 references, over 50 data tables and figures, and a lengthy summary in Spanish.) (SV)
Descriptors: Children, Disadvantaged, Economic Development, Educational Attainment, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment, Foreign Countries, Indigenous Populations, Labor Market, Literacy, Poverty, Poverty Programs, Public Policy, Rural Areas, Rural Urban Differences, Social Indicators, Social Problems
World Bank, 1818 H. Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433; Tel: 202-477-1234; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: Peru