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ERIC Number: ED432801
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999
Pages: 10
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Values and Their Expression in Educational Practices.
Chandler, Louis
This paper examines factors that have influenced education in the United States. It focuses on the crisis of confidence as American schools struggle between two competing "philosophies" of education: the traditional and the progressive. The paper outlines the tension created by youthful rebelliousness and the conservatism of elders and how the counterculture of the 1960s foisted an unrelenting attack on established authority. The ensuing struggle between traditional and progressive approaches saw the ascension of progressive ideas--ideas that have generated controversy and weakened the social consensus necessary for effective schools. As a result, current educational practices may be seen as coalescing into two groups, depending on the approach taken for various dimensions of schooling. Traditional education has become associated with concepts like subject-centered teaching, standards, examinations, structure, order, work discipline, memorization, mastery of subject content, order, and accountability. Notions that have attached themselves to progressive education include child-centered instruction, emotions, activity, relevance, discovery, critical thinking, growth, and creativity. The paper concludes that no matter what pedagogical reasons might be given to justify a given educational practice, there remain psychological and social implications that ultimately speak to the social values underlying traditional and progressive practices. (Includes a table that lists 10 sets of values and their expressions in educational practices.) (Author/RJM)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A