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ERIC Number: ED431605
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Apr
Pages: 26
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Water, Air, Fire, and Earth--A Developmental Study in Portugal of Environmental Conceptions and Values.
Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Lourenco, Orlando
This study contributes to an emerging body of research on the development of the human relationship with nature. One hundred and twenty participants from four grade levels (fifth, eighth, eleventh, and college) were interviewed about their environmental conceptions and values. Results showed that participants valued many aspects of nature and sought, in various ways, to coordinate (sometimes unsuccessfully) human needs and desires with the flourishing of the natural world. Participants' conceptions of harmony cut across five categories that included physical, sensorial, experiential, relational, and compositional. Developmentally, compositional reasoning increased with age. Participants' justifications for their evaluations included both anthropocentric appeals (e.g., to personal interests, human welfare, and aesthetics) and biocentric appeals (e.g., that nature has intrinsic value or rights). Based on cross-cultural comparisons to studies conducted with younger children in the United States (Kahn and Friedman, 1995) and the Brazilian Amazon (Howe, Kahn, and Friedman, 1996), the emergence of biocentric reasoning would appear to depend more on development than culture. Contains 34 references. (Author/NB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Portugal