ERIC Number: ED430056
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1999-Mar
Grade Retention: Prevalence, Timing, and Effects. Report No. 33.
Karweit, Nancy L.
This study investigates the correlates and consequences of grade repetition on student academic progress and social and emotional development using the first grade cohort data from the "Prospects" longitudinal database. Analyses looked at two types of comparisons, same age and same grade, on three contrasting groups of students: (1) retained students versus all never retained children; (2) retained students versus all never retained students adjusting for factors that influence retention; and (3) retained students versus a low-achieving sample of nonretained children. In this study, consequences of grade retention on social and emotional development were measured by teacher rating of student attention, cooperation, and participation. Patterns of differences between retained and promoted students varied somewhat with the sample used and whether same age or same grade comparisons were being made. Differences in ratings of attention/motivation to learn, however, were consistently observed prior to retention. These differences were consistently reduced after retention across the various samples and comparisons being made. Differences between ratings of cooperation and participation prior to and following retention were not as striking or as consistent as those for attention/motivation. Comparison of the experiences, classroom organization, instructional content, and approaches in the regular and retained year found the two years highly similar in many dimensions, suggesting that grade retention does amount to repeating the same grade. Implications for practice are discussed. Six appendixes provide study data and detailed analyses. (Contains 40 exhibits and 14 references.) (SLD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk, Baltimore, MD.