ERIC Number: ED429231
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1999
Reference Count: N/A
Equal Pay for Working Families. National and State Data on the Pay Gap and Its Costs. A Joint Research Project.
Hartmann, Heidi; Allen, Katherine; Owens, Christine
A national study, including state-by-state breakouts, analyzed Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics data to explore the wage gap. Median weekly earnings of men and women and of minorities and nonminorities were analyzed. Gender-based earnings differences and gender wage gaps were large for all women--and especially large for minority women--compared with all men. Minority-based wage gaps were substantial. The study estimated that, if married women earned as much as comparable men, their family incomes would rise by nearly 6 percent; if single working mothers earned as much as comparable men, their family incomes would increase by nearly 17 percent; if single working women earned as much as comparable men, their incomes would rise by 13.4 percent; and working women in every state would receive wage hikes if they earned as much as comparable men in their states. Comparison of earnings of workers in female-dominated jobs with comparable workers in other jobs showed very large earnings losses due to the lower pay associated with working in female-dominated jobs. The considerable advantage unionized workers enjoy, both in the form of higher wages and smaller wage gaps, was reviewed. The typical female union member earned 38 percent more per week; unionized women of color almost 39 percent more; and minority men almost 44 percent more. (A national summary table and technical appendix are attached.) (YLB)
Descriptors: Adult Education, Comparable Worth, Comparative Analysis, Dual Career Family, Employed Parents, Employed Women, Employment Practices, Minority Groups, Mothers, Nontraditional Occupations, Personnel Policy, Racial Discrimination, Salaries, Salary Wage Differentials, Sex Discrimination, Wages
AFL-CIO Support Services, 815 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006; Tel: 202-637-5042.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.; American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.