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ERIC Number: ED427910
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999
Pages: 23
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Effective Counseling with American Indian Students.
Wetsit, Deborah
Counseling has always been a part of American Indian culture. Only recently has the European American counseling establishment recognized the role of culture in counseling. Developing a historical understanding of American Indians is important to working with American Indian students. It is also important for school counselors to recognize the tremendous diversity among and within American Indian tribes and the impact of acculturation factors and cultural identity issues. The cultural differences between American Indian and European American students are very real and require an awareness of value differences in areas such as time management, goal orientation, group versus individual accomplishments, family orientation, sharing versus materialism, being versus doing, harmony with nature versus mastery over nature, the importance of tradition, humility versus arrogance, and reverence for elders. The implications of some of these primary values are discussed. School counselors must obtain cross-cultural competencies to be effective. The establishment of trust and rapport, avoidance of direct questioning, appropriate counseling styles, involvement with the community or tribe, confidentiality, and dealing with the environmental factors of racism and prejudice are essential elements of a counselor's knowledge base. Contains references in endnotes and a bibliography. (Author/TD)
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A