ERIC Number: ED427161
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Advocacy in Career Guidance. NICEC Briefing.
Barham, Lyn; Hoffbrand, Jill
In career guidance, advocacy and self-advocacy encompass a continuum from adviser action separately on behalf of a client, through shared activity, to action by the client alone. Wherever individual clients fall on the continuum, advocacy can be conducted in a manner that empowers them. Modeling is an important aspect of the process of empowerment across the advocacy/self-advocacy continuum. Career advisors can be active in ways that provide models clients can adopt. The national standards underpinning Britain's National Vocational Qualifications for guidance contain a five-stage model for advocacy: (1) explaining advocacy and agreeing that it is appropriate; (2) considering the client's options and agreeing which one to pursue; (3) preparing information and approaches, including contingencies for responses; (4) conducting advocacy in line with the client's wishes and preferences; and (5) ensuring understanding of and commitment to the outcomes of advocacy. According to a study of career services in England, career counselors are using advocacy as follows: address client's internal problems and external problems; partner with other agencies to help surmount barriers facing clients; help clients develop self-advocacy skills; and develop one-on-one mentoring relationships. Advocacy training for career counselors should focus on development of negotiating, motivational interviewing, and mentoring skills. (MN)
Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Programs, Advocacy, Career Guidance, Counseling Techniques, Counselor Client Relationship, Counselor Training, Foreign Countries, Models, Professional Development
National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge, CB3 0AX, England United Kingdom; e-mail: email@example.com
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Careers Research and Advisory Centre, Cambridge (England).; Department for Education and Employment, London (England).
Authoring Institution: National Inst. for Careers Education and Counselling, Cambridge (England).
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom (Great Britain)