ERIC Number: ED427123
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998-Oct
Reference Count: N/A
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.
Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. This is the second of those annual reports. A family is defined as dependent on welfare if more than 50% of its total income in a 1-year period comes from welfare programs and this welfare income is not associated with work activities. It has not been possible to construct one single indicator of dependence. Among other limitations, the current data do not distinguish between cash benefits for which work is required and cash benefits that are paid without work. As a result, the report includes a number of indicators addressing welfare recipiency, dependence, and labor force attachment. In 1994, the most recent year for which data are available, 5.6% of the total population were dependent in the sense of receiving more than half of total income from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Food Stamps, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). This is approximately the same rate as in the previous 2 years. The dependence rate would be lower if it were adjusted to exclude welfare assistance associated with working. Long-term dependency is relatively rare. Only 4% of those who were recipients in 1982 (less than 1% of the total population) received more than 50% of their income from welfare in 9 or 10 years over the next decade. In 1994, 46% of AFDC recipients, 38 percent of SSI recipients, and 57% of Food Stamp recipients were in families with at least one person in the labor force. The report also reviews a number of risk factors associated with welfare receipt, divided into categories of economic security measures, measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and measures of teen behavior, including nonmarital childbearing. The two "employment and work-related risk factors" most related to education are "Factor 8: Education Attainment" (p.III-49-50) and "Factor 9: High School Dropout Rates" (p.III-51-52). Three appendixes contain program data, poverty data, and additional nonmarital birth data. (Contains 98 tables and 65 figures.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Definitions, Disadvantaged Youth, Employment, Government Role, Income, Low Income Groups, Poverty, Tables (Data), Urban Problems, Urban Youth, Welfare Recipients, Welfare Reform, Welfare Services
Office of Human Services Policy, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Room 410E, 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201; Tel: 202-690-7409; Fax: 202-690-6562.
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Aid to Families with Dependent Children