ERIC Number: ED427017
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Reference Count: N/A
Learning How They Learn: A Review of the Literature on Learning Styles.
Wilson, Vicki A.
The literature on learning styles is full of unresolved issues, both theoretical and practical. Early research into learning styles includes that of H. A. Witkin, who developed the Embedded Figures Test in the late 1960s. This test determines the "field dependence" or "field independence" of individuals, marking their global (field dependent) or analytic (field independent) orientations. A. F. Gregorc developed four learning preference modes based on dualities in the acquisition of learning: abstract versus concrete and sequential versus random. Another conceptualization of learning styles is that of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, based on the theory of Carl Jung, which divides individuals into 16 archetypes. R. and K. Dunn have been promoting learning styles-based instruction for more than 20 years. Their Learning Styles Inventory elicits student reaction to the instructional environment, the student's emotionality, social preferences, and physiological uniqueness. Also noted are the joint research of W. Barbe, M. Milone, and R. Swassing, and the work of J. Keefe. Some criticism of learning styles-based instruction are noted. (Contains 20 references.) (SLD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Gregorc Style Delineator; Myers Briggs Type Indicator