ERIC Number: ED425904
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1998-Nov
Sequencing Adventure Activities: A New Perspective.
Sequencing in adventure education involves putting activities in an order appropriate to the needs of the group. Contrary to the common assumption that each adventure sequence is unique, a review of literature concerning five sequencing models reveals a certain universality. These models present sequences that move through four phases: group formation, group challenge, group support, and group achievement. These phases are compared to four stages of group development found in a meta-analysis of 50 studies of groups. These stages are termed: forming, storming, norming, and performing. Other research clearly indicates that various sequences have differing effects on the development of teamwork and on the development of group cohesion. It is asserted that debates over the uniqueness versus universality of sequencing and over the benefits of flexibility versus fixed planning create a false dichotomy. A planning continuum is suggested that allows for three distinct levels of sequences. At the flexible end of the continuum, the "micro-sequence" or individual adventure activity could be modified at any time in response to group needs. At the fixed-planning end of the continuum, the "macro-sequence" would plan the order of activity categories that catalyze the social-maturation phases of the group. In the middle of the continuum, the "meso-sequence" would involve choosing activities appropriate to each group phase. (Contains 26 references and 4 tables.) (SV)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Experiential Education (26th, Incline Village, NV, November 5-8, 1998).