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ERIC Number: ED424058
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Pages: 6
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
It Is Better To Learn To Fish: Empowerment in Adventure Education.
Hyde-Hills, Ian
Adventure-based programs may be designed in a way that not only provides an intervention aimed at therapy or development, but also teaches participants to become their own agents of change. McWhirter's model proposes that empowerment is broader than notions of personal autonomy and efficacy, reaching outside the individual. The model specifies four requirements for complete empowerment: becoming aware of the power dynamics at work in one's life (conscientization), developing skills and capacity to gain some control over one's life, exercising this control without infringing on others' rights, and supporting empowerment of others in the community. These four requirements can give structure to an adventure program. In dealing with the primary theme of the program (specific need or intervention), participants may learn McWhirter's empowerment model experientially. Isomorphic framing techniques are used to draw parallels between the model and the primary theme's therapeutic process. To use this method, wilderness adventure programs must have two parts: preparation and training for the wilderness project and actual undertaking of the project in the wilderness. The training phase provides a wide range of life skills and meets the participants' special needs, while the wilderness phase provides motivation to learn and the opportunity to use new skills. An example of teenagers learning effective communications skills during a 2-day wilderness project illustrates the application of the four-stage empowerment model. (SV)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A