ERIC Number: ED422407
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998-Feb
Reference Count: N/A
Classroom Questions. ERIC/AE Digest.
Brualdi, Amy C.
Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster student learning. Low-level cognitive questions may limit students by not helping them acquire a deep understanding of a subject, but high-level cognitive questions, which require students to use higher order thinking or reasoning skills, ask students to use knowledge to solve problems, to analyze, and to evaluate. Many teachers, however, rely on low-level cognitive questions to keep the attention of the students, maintain order, and avoid a slow-paced lesson. W. Wilen and A. Clegg (1986) suggest that teachers can ask questions that foster student achievement if they: (1) phrase questions clearly; (2) ask questions primarily of an academic nature; (3) allow 3 to 5 seconds of wait time after questions; (4) encourage students to respond in some way to each question; (5) balance responses from volunteering and nonvolunteering students; (6) elicit a high percentage of correct responses and assist with incorrect responses; (7) probe students' responses to have them clarify ideas, support a point of view, or extend their thinking; and (8) acknowledge correct responses and use praise specifically and discriminately. Teachers should be sure that they have a clear purpose for the questions they ask. (Contains 13 references.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Classroom Techniques, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Elementary Secondary Education, Learning, Questioning Techniques, Teaching Methods, Wait Time
ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, The Catholic University of America, Shriver Laboratory, College Park, MD 20742; toll-free phone: 800-464-3742 (free).
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, Washington, DC.