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ERIC Number: ED421528
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998-Apr
Pages: 9
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Comparability of Scores on Word-Processed and Handwritten Essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test.
Bridgeman, Brent; Cooper, Peter
Essays for the Graduate Management Admissions Test must be written with a word processor (except in some foreign countries). The test sponsors, the Graduate Management Admissions Council, believed that this is fair because some word processing skill is a prerequisite for advanced management education. Furthermore, it might also be unfair to require students who routinely use word processors to shift to paper and pencil just for a testing situation. The current study addressed the comparability of scores from handwritten and word-processed essays using a sample of 3,470 examinees who had written essays in both formats. Both the computer and paper-and-pencil versions contained two 30-minute essays questions, one asking for an analysis of an issue and the other analyzing the reasoning of a presented argument. Results indicate that scores were higher on the handwritten essays than on the word-processed essays, and that this difference did not interact with gender, ethnic, or English-as-a-Second-Language group classifications. Differences between scores for handwritten and word-processed essays were smallest for the most experienced computer users, but even examinees who reported using a word processor more than two times a week had higher scores on their handwritten essays than on their word-processed essays. Other findings indicated that reader reliability was higher for the word-processed essays, and that in either format there were substantial practice effects, with the scores on the second essay about 0.4 standard deviation units higher than scores on the first essay. (Author/SLD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Graduate Management Admission Test