ERIC Number: ED420651
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Reference Count: N/A
Trying To Beat the Clock: Uses of Teacher Professional Time in Three Countries.
Adelman, Nancy E.
This study examined teachers' use of professional time when not directly with students, describing alternative time use in Germany and Japan. The study involved 21 German, Japanese, and U.S. elementary schools. Researchers collected background information on teachers' professional lives and conducted case studies of teachers' daily work, examining traditional and innovative schools. This report presents study data in eight chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) The Structures of Elementary School Teaching in Three Countries: An Overview of Education Systems in the United States, Germany, and Japan; (3) Teachers' Required School Day in the U.S., Japan, and Germany: A Quantitative Look; (4) The Structure and Uses of Teachers' On-the-Clock Professional Time without Students; (5) Improving the Quality of On-the-Clock Professional Time; (6) Above and Beyond: Teachers' Work Off-the-Clock; (7) Teachers and Students: The Psychology of Time and Space; and (8) Summary. Overall, Japanese teachers have slightly more weekly planning time than U.S. teachers, with more sustained planning time blocks after school. German primary school days are shorter than U.S. primary school days. Teachers' planning and preparation occur at home. Older German and Japanese elementary students are taught by specialist teachers during some periods, with classroom teachers having other assignments during those periods. Planning time for U.S. teachers generally occurs when students go to specialist teachers. Innovative U.S. schools provide teachers with longer blocks of time and more collaborative planning time than do traditional schools. (SM)
Descriptors: Cooperative Planning, Cultural Differences, Educational Innovation, Elementary Education, Elementary School Teachers, Faculty Development, Foreign Countries, Noninstructional Responsibility, Planning, Teacher Collaboration, Teacher Improvement, Teacher Responsibility, Teacher Role, Time Blocks, Time Management, Working Hours
U.S. Department of Education, Planning and Evaluation Service, Room 4123, FOB10B, Washington, DC 20202; phone: 800-USA-LEARN.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Department of Education, Washington, DC. Planning and Evaluation Service.
Authoring Institution: Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: Germany; Japan; United States