ERIC Number: ED417861
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
The International Resilience Research Project.
Grotberg, Edith H.
Resilience is defined as "the human capacity to face, overcome, and be strengthened by experiences of adversity." This study used an Eriksonian developmental model to examine parents', caregivers', and children's resilience-promotion in children up to 12 years of age. Age and gender differences and cultural/ethnic similarities and differences in resilience promotion were examined. Subjects responded to 3 age-specific (birth to 3 years, 4 to 6 years, and 9 to 11 years) structured situations of adversity. Data were received from 27 sites in 22 countries for a total of 1,225 target children and families/caregivers. Findings indicated that about one-third of parents promoted resilience. Resilience was promoted more in situations where helplessness and need were perceived and where support seemed feasible and less in situations in which there were perceived threats to authority, in which blame and punishment seemed more important than understanding or communication, and in which the person who could promote resilience was more concerned with frustration. Younger children (4-6) relied more than older children on help and guidance from parents to deal with adversity; older children (9-11) promoted resilience as often as their parents. When younger children promoted resilience, girls drew on empathy and helpfulness more than boys. For older children, girls drew on trusting relationships, role modeling, and promoting autonomy more than boys; all internal resilience factors except a sense of control; and all interpersonal skills except managing impulsivity and seeking help which were used with the same frequency as boys. Examples from Sudan, Namibia, and Armenia suggested differences and similarities in successful resilience promotion. Socioeconomic status had an insignificant impact on resilience-promoting behavior; the difference was primarily in the number of resilience factors used. (Contains 43 references.) (KB)
Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Age Differences, Child Rearing, Children, Coping, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences, Foreign Countries, Parent Child Relationship, Parenting Skills, Personality Development, Personality Traits, Resilience (Personality), Sex Differences
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A