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ERIC Number: ED417056
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Pages: 12
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Group Dynamics and Initiative Activities with Outdoor Programs.
Zwaagstra, Lynn
This paper focuses on group dynamics and introduces the use of initiative activities as a means of facilitating a more cohesive group experience in outdoor programs. Specific topics addressed and defined include: (1) curative factors of groups (universality, didactic learning, altruism, socialization, peer learning, group cohesiveness); (2) stages of group development (orientation, conflict, cohesion, performance); (3) types of group levels (group task level, group maintenance level, individual level); and (4) roles of group members (task roles, maintenance roles, and task and maintenance combined). Destructive roles of group members (aggression, blocking, dominating, out-of-field behavior, special interest, and horsing around) are also defined. Proper use of initiative activities such as icebreakers and communication exercises can facilitate increased communication, problem solving, teamwork, and trust. Initiative activities can accelerate or decelerate the group development process. Six initiative activities are described in the appendix: name game, identity cards, trait pictures, blindfolded triangle, blindfolded mute number line-up, and mute acid river crossing. Contains 12 references. (SAS)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A