ERIC Number: ED416417
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Reference Count: N/A
Patterns of Enterprise Flexibility: IAB Establishment Panel Results, Western Germany, 1993-95.
Bellmann, Lutz; Dull, Herbert; Kuhl, Jurgen; Lahner, Manfred; Lehmann, Udo
IAB Labour Market Research Topics, n24 1997
Data on flexibility in German companies were compiled through interviews and followed up annually. Employment trends in western Germany indicated a historic peak of 29.5 million employed in 1992 followed by a steady decline of about 1 million to 28.5 million in 1995. Employment losses continued in 1996; 1997 showed some signs of stability. Measurement of numerical flexibility of human resources showed an average job turnover of 7.9 percent per year for 1982-94 and considerable labor turnover at around 11 percent per year, with a slightly rising trend for 1993-95. Another dimension of flexibility of human resources and establishments, variation in working time patterns, was very large and increased as establishment size increased. Pay flexibility was inferred from wage differential trends, number of establishments bound by collective wage agreements, and wage gap between wages/salaries paid and collectively agreed wages. Wage differentials increased; the number of establishments bound to collectively agreed wages dropped; and the average wage gap fell. Technical and organizational change affected research, product innovation, and investment, which, in turn, required a new work organization, decoupled operating and working times, and additional staff qualifications. Corporate flexibility required employee training to produce higher skill levels. Because few establishments were integrated, fewer workers were affected. (Contains 54 references.) (YLB)
Descriptors: Collective Bargaining, Employment Patterns, Flexible Working Hours, Foreign Countries, Human Resources, Job Layoff, Job Training, Labor Turnover, Organizational Change, Technological Advancement, Unions, Wages
Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt-und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit (IAB), Regensburger Strasse 104, 90327 Nurnberg, Germany; phone: +49-911-179-0; fax: 49-911-179-3258; World Wide Web: http://www.iab.de
Publication Type: Collected Works - Serials; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Institute of Employment Research, Nurenberg (Germany).
Identifiers - Location: Germany