ERIC Number: ED415079
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Four Successful Indigenous Language Programs.
Stiles, Dawn B.
This paper examines four indigenous language programs to compare common components, problems, and outcomes. The programs are Cree Way in Quebec, Canada, Hualapai in Arizona, Te Kohanga Reo (Maori) in New Zealand, and Punana Leo (Hawaiian) in Hawaii. These programs were chosen for four characteristics: (1) the languages are no longer transmitted to the younger generation (in the home or community); (2) the programs all have curriculum development, community support, parent involvement, and government support; (3) the programs exist in different countries; and (4) they are recommended as model programs for endangered indigenous languages. Each program's description covers historical background; program development; funding; parent, community, and academic involvement; and current status. Each program has a curriculum that combines indigenous language and cultural heritage, literacy, community involvement, and parent participation. Common problems are related to teacher availability, teacher training, lack of written materials, and funding. Outcomes of all programs have included decreased dropout rates, increased sense of heritage and identity, and improved test scores. It is concluded that the success of these types of programs depends on home and community initiative and involvement; culture cannot be separated from the language. It is also important to begin the program at an early age, preferably preschool; to have a firm theoretical foundation; and to have written teaching materials. Contains 29 references. (SAS)
Descriptors: American Indian Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Case Studies, Community Involvement, Cree, Culturally Relevant Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Hawaiian, Immersion Programs, Indigenous Populations, Language Maintenance, Maori, Native Language Instruction, Preschool Education, Program Descriptions
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A