ERIC Number: ED415057
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1996-Oct
Reference Count: N/A
The Social Cost of Growing Up in Rural America: Rural Development and Social Change during the Twentieth Century. Social Research Report Series 96-5.
Howell, Frank M.; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Wade-Harper, Cynthia
This report examines the extent and process by which rural origins may affect socioeconomic attainments in adulthood and how these "costs" have changed during this century. Introductory sections review research and theories of rural differentiation and stratification and the history of major federal policy initiatives for rural development. Data are drawn from the General Social Surveys, 1972-94, (categorized to provide data on cohorts of 16-year-olds during major periods of rural development policy--1900-20, 1921-32, 1933-40, 1941-52, 1953-66, and 1967-80) and the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS-1972) of high school seniors in 1972 traced into mid-adulthood. The NLS-1972 database was used to estimate a social psychological model of status attainment. Migration variables were then added to the model to determine whether rural youth could "migrate away" from the social costs of their origins. Across the major periods of rural development policy, rural-associated deficits in completed education showed a clear decline. Moreover, education is the conduit by which rural origins influence occupational status. However, family income continued to show rural-associated deficits, especially for rural nonfarm residents. The model suggests that reduced expectations of family and friends influence the educational planning and eventual status attainment of rural youth. Trends in migration effects were inconsistent. Implications for public policy issues involving rural development programs are discussed. Contains 79 references and extensive statistical tables. (Author/SV)
Descriptors: Educational Attainment, Employment Level, Family Income, Place of Residence, Public Policy, Rural Areas, Rural Development, Rural Farm Residents, Rural Nonfarm Residents, Rural to Urban Migration, Rural Urban Differences, Rural Youth, Social Stratification, Sociocultural Patterns, Socioeconomic Status, Tables (Data)
Social Science Research Center, P.O. Box 5287, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5287 (MAFES-D-8985).
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Jackson.
Authoring Institution: Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State. Social Science Research Center.
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: General Social Survey; National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972