ERIC Number: ED414372
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1994-Nov-17
Reference Count: N/A
An Analysis of Referrals, Placement, and Progress of Children with Disabilities Who Attend New York City Public Schools. Final Report.
Gottlieb, Jay; Alter, Mark
The overrepresentation of students of color referred for special education in New York City was studied using data taken from the New York City Board of Education for 813 elementary and middle schools and 102 high schools. Analyses were based on Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students. The racial and ethnic disproportion of special education students was found to be the cumulative result of disproportion in referrals and in eligibility and placement decisions by the city's Committee on Special Education. Black and Hispanic students were overrepresented in special education and Whites and Asians were underrepresented, although substantial district-wide variations were evident in these findings. Racial and ethnic disproportion was more apparent for Black than Hispanic students. Academic achievement, misbehavior, and speech and language problems were the main reasons students were referred to special education. Standardized educational criteria for making referrals to special education or for eligibility for placement in special education do not exist, and there is substantial variability across schools and school districts. Criteria should be developed for identifying the success of prereferral instructional activities as a means of retaining students in general educational classes. A substantial need for better teacher training in behavior analysis was also identified. In spite of the state's recommendation that all mildly handicapped students receive academic mainstreaming, only about one in six actually do receive academic mainstreaming. Regardless of race or ethnicity, there were no exit criteria for special education. Once placed in special education, few students ever leave. Appendixes include profiles of referrals and classifications for the city, charts of racial and ethnic distributions in special education, the data collection form, and the teacher interview schedule. (Contains 10 tables and 64 charts.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Criteria, Disabilities, Disproportionate Representation, Elementary Secondary Education, Eligibility, Ethnicity, Instructional Effectiveness, Mainstreaming, Minority Groups, Questionnaires, Referral, School Districts, Special Education, Student Placement, Tables (Data), Urban Schools, Urban Youth
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Tests/Questionnaires
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: New York City Board of Education, Bronx, NY.
Authoring Institution: New York Univ., NY. School of Education.