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ERIC Number: ED414316
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997-Aug
Pages: 45
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
From Exclusion to Self-Selection: Citizenship and Examination of Behaviour in Finnish Elementary and Comprehensive Schooling from the 1860s to the 1990s.
Simola, Hannu
This paper investigated how the examination of student behavior, seen as techniques and their effects, has participated in the construction of citizenship in compulsory schooling in Finland. Data were gathered from "state educational discourse," including national curricula, governmental committee reports, legislative and regulatory material, and teacher handbooks. School year and term reports from 1995-96 were also studied. Four periods were identified as related to the dominant techniques of examination: (1) the old elementary school (1966-1943), dominated by punitive and exclusive techniques, with selective and standardizing techniques nearly nonexistent; (2) the new elementary school (1943-1970), which introduced new selective techniques of examination; (3) the young comprehensive school (1970-1994), which introduced standardizing techniques of examination; and (4) the real innovations of the modern comprehensive school with its variety of self-selective techniques. Virtually all the techniques of behavior examination are individualizing and normalizing, but in the elementary schools the focus has been on deviating students. In the comprehensive school, students have been regarded with more sophisticated and scrutinizing behavior examination. The most ambitious techniques proposed by academics have only been used for short periods or never used. The changing techniques are considered in light of other social changes, especially those in teaching. Central to this discussion is the concept of pastoral professionalism as presented by Michel Foucault. (Contains 74 references.) (SLD)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Finland