ERIC Number: ED414085
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997-Sep
Reference Count: N/A
Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.
Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela
Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young children were analyzed. Findings indicated that in almost all soft PVC toys analyzed, phthalates comprised between 10 and 40 percent of the total weight of the toy. The most frequently identified phthalate was the isomeric form diisononyl phthalate (DINP). Of the 63 PVC toys analyzed, 40 contained DINP as the predominant phthalate, compared to 8 toys for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Of 8 non-PVC toys analyzed, only one contained any detectable phthalate. DINP shows toxicological properties in laboratory animals similar to that of DEHP, including liver and kidney disorders, reproductive tract damage, increased incidence of certain forms of cancers, and diverse effects on development and metabolism. Although DINP, when purchased for laboratory use, is labeled with a number of warnings, toys containing up to 40 percent by weight DINP in a readily leachable form are frequently labeled "nontoxic." Other compounds identified in some of the toys included dibutyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate and are known to be particularly hazardous. Thirteen toys contained the estrogenic chemical nonylphenol and two toys contained the fungicide Fungitrol 11. (Four tables contain findings and details regarding the toys tested. Contains 45 references.) (Author/KB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Exeter Univ. (England).