ERIC Number: ED413552
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1997
Gender Differences in Causal Attributions of Imagined Performance on English, History, and Math Exams.
This study investigated gender differences in causal attributions and emotions to success and failure. A literature review on gender differences in causal attributions revealed inconsistencies. For the present study, college students (N=247) filled out questionnaires and were also asked to imagine varying degrees of success in college courses. The results indicate that gender differences in causal attributions do exist. Females, compared to males, favored effort attributions (paying attention and studying) for successful outcomes. For failure outcomes, males, more than females, thought that a lack of studying was responsible. Thus, males protected their self-confidence in failure situations by blaming a poor performance on an unstable cause that can be changed in the future. Females viewed the lack of ability as a more important cause for a failing grade than did males. Emotions also differed, with males indicating that they would derive more confidence after receiving an A than females. Females felt more like failures than did males after receiving an F. It was found that gender differences in causal attributions depended on the gender-type of the subject matter. (RJM)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (9th).