ERIC Number: ED413533
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1997
Reference Count: N/A
Career Development: Issues of Gender, Race, and Class. Information Series No. 371.
Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.
The premise of this paper is that, although career choice implies options, issues of gender, race, and class may constrain the occupational choices an individual makes. Dominant career development theories are being reexamined for their appropriateness to diverse groups. This paper reviews the following theories: Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma's (1951); Holland's Career Typology (1985); Super's Theory of Vocational Choice (1996); Social Cognitive Career Theory; and recent work by Gottfredson (1996) and Bandura (1986). The review shows how vocational choice is influenced by one's self-concept and sextyping of occupations, as well as by environmental factors. Specific issues and barriers are presented: for women, the effect of socialization on self-efficacy; for African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Native Americans, the influence of internal and external attitudes and factors, and for low-income groups, the effects of economic circumstances and social attitudes. Career counseling strategies that address issues of gender, race, and class are derived from career development theory. The importance of the role of the classroom teacher, who may be even more influential than the guidance counselor, is stressed. Contains 77 references. (SK)
Descriptors: Career Choice, Career Development, Counseling Techniques, Females, Low Income, Minority Groups, Occupational Aspiration, Self Efficacy, Social Class, Social Cognition, Teacher Role, Theories
Publications, Center on Education and Training for Employment, 1900 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1090 (IN 371, $8).
Publication Type: ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Counselors; Practitioners; Teachers
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Columbus, OH.