ERIC Number: ED413466
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1996-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
Affirmative Action in Employment: An Overview. Briefing Paper.
All but 3-4% of the 91,189 complaints of alleged discrimination received by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1994 were dismissed for lack of sufficient proof of discrimination. A 1995 study of the extent of voluntary affirmative action found that 37% of a sample of 138 employers surveyed in the Philadelphia area had implemented steps that could be considered affirmative action and 58% had adopted race- or gender-neutral policies to improve the fairness of their personnel procedures. Since affirmative action was instituted in 1965, women have increased their share of the total labor force from 35% to almost 46%. Although the pay gaps between white men and women of color and between white men and white women have narrowed, differences persist between white women and women of color. Although women are now proportionally represented in management-level jobs, minorities are not. Occupational segregation still remains a problem, and as a group, black men and black and white women still earn approximately $10,000 less per year than white men do. Despite the employment and earnings gains made by women and minorities in the past 3 decades, evidence of labor market discrimination still exists. The evidence suggests that there is a continuing need for affirmative action. (MN)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.