ERIC Number: ED412663
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1996
Reference Count: N/A
Inclusion: What It Is and How It Works Best.
Scheffel, Debora L.; Kallam, Michael; Smith, K. Ninia; Hoernicke, Placido Arturo
Inclusion is a way of providing a normalized educational experience for all children with disabilities. Educators differ, however, on the meaning of inclusion, from full-inclusion advocates to those who assert "inclusive" means that learning needs are met in a range of service delivery contexts. Three components of inclusionary schooling that are identified include support networking, collaborative consultation and teaming, and cooperative learning. Research and experience have also identified specific organizational, procedural, and instructional elements of responsible inclusion. Organizational elements include a democratic school philosophy, availability of technical assistance to faculty and staff, adequate resources, and safeguards for nondisabled students. Procedural elements include on-going deliberate planning, systematic documentation of students' instruction and progress, knowledgeable multidisciplinary teams, encouragement of regular class teacher participation, and gradual introduction of the student into the regular classroom. Finally, instructional elements include teaching teachers to analyze curricular skill requirements and learner strengths and needs, to use collaboration skills and a variety of instructional models. According to the literature review, also important for successful inclusion is consideration of the student's cultural affiliation and self-identification. Contains 15 references. (DB)
Descriptors: Cooperative Learning, Cultural Differences, Definitions, Delivery Systems, Disabilities, Educational Principles, Elementary Secondary Education, Inclusive Schools, Inservice Teacher Education, Interdisciplinary Approach, Mainstreaming, Program Effectiveness, Recordkeeping, Regular and Special Education Relationship, Student Placement, Teacher Collaboration, Teaching Models, Team Teaching, Technical Assistance
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom; Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners; Teachers
Authoring Institution: Fort Hays State Univ., Kans.