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ERIC Number: ED411877
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Pages: 21
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Lifelong Learning: The Whole DAMN Cycle--A Singapore Perspective.
Pan, Daphne Yuen
The Desire, Ability, Means, and Need (DAMN) Cycle is a useful paradigm for understanding the lifelong learning framework in Singapore. The cycle suggests that, for learning to occur, students must have a desire and an ability to learn, including inquiring minds and higher order process skills; the means must be provided through a well-defined educational infrastructure and appropriate teaching models; and a perceived need must exist for education or training. In Singapore, the educational system and societal pressures lead students to desire success in examinations more than learning itself. This issue is being addressed by modifying the examination system, trimming school curriculum, and increasing the use of information technology in the classroom. Students' impressive achievements in school performance may also rest merely on exam-smart skills rather than true cognitive intelligence. As a result, structured programs have been implemented that require utilization of analytical skills that prepare for higher education. The means for lifelong learning is being provided in the country through programs that promote learner-centered approaches and the teaching of thinking skills. To fully implement lifelong learning, Singapore should develop regional cooperation and a systems approach to maximize resources; focus on both national and international contexts; and address problems related to parochialism, assessment benchmarks, and funding sources. Contains 39 references. (YKH)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Singapore