ERIC Number: ED411565
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
Children's Systematic Use of Private Speech in Early Childhood Classrooms.
Winsler, Adam; Carlton, Martha P.; Barry, Maryann J.
A study examined children's use of private speech in early childhood classrooms. The study's three goals were: to determine the degree to which private speech is used; to replicate and extend previous research with older children; and to examine the classroom's particular contexts and activity settings which maximize children's use of private speech. Subjects were 3- and 4-year olds in a university laboratory preschool, including 14 children (43% female) in the 3-year-old classroom and 14 of 16 (56% female) children in the 4-year-old classroom. Observers used a behavioral checklist instrument and pre-recorded time signals. Each child was observed an average of 98 times yielding a total of 2752 observations. Results indicated that, overall, children used private speech in 13% of the observations, suggesting that 3-4 year old children spontaneously use self-regulatory language often in the context of the preschool classroom. Among other results, 4-year-olds' private speech occurred during the self-directed, tacitly structured, self-selected activity time setting, whereas 3-year-olds' self-talk was more evenly distributed across the three classroom settings. Findings suggest that most (77%) 4-year-olds' private speech occurred during focused, on-task activities while 3-year-olds' private speech was equally likely to appear during either on-task or off-task activities. (Contains 9 references; graphs of study results are appended.) (CR)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A